In Croatia, despite legal adjustments in July 2023 removing geographical restrictions for energy communities, Croatia still faces a stark absence of both registered energy communities and collective self-consumption initiatives as of February 2024. A supportive legal framework is still missing to foster the foundation and growth of citizen initiatives. However, at least six energy initiatives willing to register as energy communities have been identified and over 100 inquiries for collective self-consumption have been made. Finally, the ongoing limitations on eligibility and the lack of defined network charges may significantly impact the economic viability of energy sharing projects. This situation calls for immediate action to support the establishment and success of CECs in Croatia.

Contact: Josip Beber,


In Estonia, the energy co-op scene is rather new and still needs to spread roots. We are lacking in the regulatory aspect, spreading of knowledge and mindset. The topic needs to be solved sociologically by teaching and contributing into lawmaking after which a more widespread creation of energy co-ops can be expected. By adjusting the regulation we technically have ca 1.000-1.500 energy co-ops (because legally any apartment co-op can be identified as an energy co-op), but in reality only a few are actual energy communities.

Contact: Joosep Veerme,


In Greece, energy communities are facing several challenges, such as lack of access to the energy grid, low awareness regarding the framework and inadequate or absent implementation of the net-metering scheme. This highlights the need of a representative body to be formed and work towards solving these matters. Electra Energy has already reached out to several energy communities and supporting organisations in order to create a coalition and there is already a statute in place that 20 energy communities have signed as founding members. The entity has not yet been registered or started operating, and it is open to new members.

Contact: Sandy Fameliari, Interim Coordinator of the Coalition,


In Hungary, the energy community scene is in a very early stage. After the first changes of the legislative framework and the two first (not yet working) registered energy communities there are still huge gaps in the regulatory basis on energy communities. Besides the unpredictable and contradictory legal framework regarding community and renewable energy, a historical opposition to cooperatives makes it even harder for energy communities to be formed. While several NGOs are advocating for energy communities, there is also the danger of corporate cooptation of the scene. Solidarity Economy Center created the Transzformátor community energy development agency to raise awareness, build capacity, advocate decision makers, support and consult early energy community initiatives in Hungary.

Contact: Fanni Sáfián Farkas,


In Poland, the energy community faces legal barriers due to the lack of transposition of EU directives, specifically RED II and IEMD, which hinders the development of more sustainable energy practices. Additionally, there is discrimination against energy cooperatives in urban areas, making it challenging for these entities to contribute effectively to the local energy landscape. These legal obstacles not only limit the growth of renewable energy initiatives but also impact the broader goal of transitioning towards a more sustainable and inclusive energy system in Poland. The situation underscores the need for legal reforms to align national regulations with EU standards and to foster a more supportive environment for all energy stakeholders.

Contact: Bartłomiej Kupiec,


In Romania, there is no suitable legislation for the development of energy communities. The two European directives that regulate Renewable Energy Communities (REC) and Citizen Energy Communities (CEC) were translated as they are, but without secondary legislation. This way, no one knows exactly what needs to be done. There are no resources from the government or municipalities, and we are not only talking about financial resources but also the lack of facilities and clarity in legislation. Additionally, the concept is new, and communities are not very aware that they can engage in such activities.

Contact: Camelia Sava,


In Slovenia, both renewable energy communities and citizens energy communities are defined in the legislation, where RECs are well defined especially for self consumption purposes and for CECs many issues remain unclear. With the end of the net-metering scheme and upcoming new methodology for charging for grid use, new self-consumption communities will face more barriers. Support framework needs to be developed to create favourable conditions for energy communities to thrive.

Contact: Barbara Kvac, senior expert,