Definition & enabling frameworks

In most central and eastern European countries, civil society’s energy initiatives are suffering from unclear transpositions of the energy community definitions (based on the Renewable Energy Directive (2018/2001) and the Internal Electricity Market Directive (2019/944).

The Renewable Energy Directive requires Member States to propose an enabling framework for renewable energy communities. However, in most CEE countries enabling frameworks are missing (Croatia, Poland, Estonia), have not been translated into concrete measures (Slovenia, Romania) or are incomplete (Greece, Hungary).

Detailed information on definition and enabling frameworks are available in’s Transposition tracker.

Definitions 222024 2x
REC and CEC definitions - Updated January 2024

Access to finance

Different EU public funds are relevant tools for Member states to finance energy communities.

  • The Recovery & Resilience Funds represents €385.8 billion in loans and €338 billion in grants to promote digital and green transitions after COVID. The Commission calls for 37% to be allocated to climate action (including renewable energy). The Commission describes energy communities as vehicles to tackle energy poverty.
  • The Cohesion & Regional Development Funds aims at decreasing economic, social and territorial inequalities within the EU. Energy Communities may contribute to Policy Priority Objective 2 (RCO97) “Greener Europe” (output indicator according to the regulation) and Policy Priority Objective 5 “Europe closer to citizens” .
  • The Modernisation Funds supports 10 Member States to meet 2030 energy targets by helping to modernise energy systems and improve energy efficiency. Energy communities can cover all the funds’ priority areas e.g. renewable energy generation, energy efficiency, promotion of a just transition.
  • The REPowerEU plan aimed to mobilise close to EUR 300 billion for Member States to update their recovery and resilience plans, providing additional support for energy efficiency and renewable energy measures.

The Financing Tracker provides a detailed overview of the situation of these four funds for each country.